il tuo 5 x 1000…

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Il 5 x 1000 è una quota delle tasse che paghi e che puoi destinare ad una associazione riconosciuta presso l’Agenzia delle Entrate.

UnicoSole è tra queste.

Se scegli di donare a UnicoSole il tuo 5 x 1000, quando fai la dichiarazione dei redditi devi firmare e indicare il codice fiscale dell’associazione

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nel riquadro con l’indicazione “Sostegno del volontariato e delle altre organizzazioni non lucrative di utilità sociale,  delle associazioni di promozione sociale e delle associazioni e fondazioni riconosciute che operano nei settori di cui all’art. 10, c. 1, lett a), del D.Lgs. n. 460 del 1997

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In Madagascar le scuole sono gestite dai FRAM,  l’acronimo di  Fikambanan’ny Ray Amandrenin’ny Mpianatra, associazioni genitori- insegnanti.

Dal momento che gli insegnanti statali sono in mumero  insufficiente, i FRAM ne assumono altri a  contratto, pagandoli con il riso.

I comitati si occupano anche della gestione delle mense scolastiche sostenute da UnicoSole sia impegnandosi a finanziare una parte dei costi, sia provvedendo alla preparazione del cibo.

Durante i nostri viaggi li incontriamo, ascoltiamo le loro proposte e ci confrontiamo sulle loro richieste, sulle modalità di partecipazione e di gestione delle attività.

madagascar2011 1477.jpg - 126.10 KbUnicoSole utilizza tutti i fondi raccolti per il finanziamento dei progetti, perchè i soci e i sostenitori offrono gratuitamenemente la loro collaborazione.

Puoi aiutarci anche stampando il volantino del 5 x 1000 e proporre ai tuoi amici di sostenere UnicoSole.

Contiamo sul tuo impegno!

Accelerating Land Rights Reform to Revive the Malagasy Economy

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/04/14/accelerating-land-rights-reform-to-revive-the-malagasy-economy

Puoi vedere il video dell’articolo cliccando il link

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/video/2014/04/10/faster-and-cheaper-a-new-way-of-registering-land-rights-in-madagascar

 

AMPARAFARAVOLA, April 14, 2014

 Rakoto Dieudonné lives in Amparafaravola, a rural town in northeastern Madagascar. When this small farmer wanted to buy land, following the common practice, he simply signed “a piece of paper” which was authenticated by the neighborhood chief at the time. “But now,” he says, “I’m afraid that unscrupulous people will come and take my land from me. That’s why I don’t want to risk planting crops in my fields.”

Rakoto’s fears come from the fact that the little piece of paper he signed a few years ago has no legal validity. Until 2005, only an official land title issued by the State could establish property rights in Madagascar, under a system dating back to the colonial era.

“At the time, the idea was to grant property access to a limited number of entrepreneurs following a long and expensive registration process,” explains André Teyssier, a World Bank land administration specialist. To obtain this title, he added, an owner had to wait six years on average and spend around US$500, an astronomical sum considering that it amounts to two years’ income for the average Malagasy household.

As a result, of the nearly 10 million land lots identified on this Indian Ocean island, one of the poorest countries in the world, only 500,000 were registered over the last 115 years. This dysfunctional land system has hobbled Madagascar’s economic development, with farmers such as Rakoto choosing not to make the most of their land for fear of losing their property rights.

“Some twenty years ago, I began the necessary steps to obtain a land title,” says Bako Rabenandrasana, a farmer from the small town of Behenjy. “But the process was long and expensive,” she adds. “Officials from the city had to travel to my property in the country. That was an extra fee for me. And I had to go back and forth to the city to check on the process. I ended up abandoning the idea.”

Decentralizing land management

To protect the rights of Malagasy citizens to the land they own, in 2005 the government of Madagascar launched an innovative reform process that delegated responsibility for issuing land certificates to local districts. Land that was occupied but had not been registered with a State land title would no longer be considered the State’s property, but rather untitled private property that could be certified at the district level through local land offices.

One-third of the districts in the country now have these offices, and more than 100,000 land certificates have been issued since the reform process began. The certificate validates property rights through a process conducted with village elders and local authorities, without the involvement of a surveyor or land inspector, simply using a photograph of the district’s land to demarcate individuals’ lots.

“Land certificates carry the same legal weight as land titles,” Teyssier notes, “but cost US$15 each, a sum that is still too high, given that 92 percent of the people live on less than US$2 a day.”

The land reform process was significantly hampered by the political crisis that plagued the country for several years (from the takeover by a de facto government in March 2009 until new elections were held in late 2013) and prompted the withdrawal of the main donors from the country. However, in 2012, pilot operations in five districts were launched through a program conducted by the National Land Program (Programme National Foncier, PNF), with assistance from the French Agency for Development (Agence française de développement, AFD) and the World Bank.

The objective, Teyssier explains, was “to expand property rights to as many people as possible through a joint effort to reduce the cost of land certification, while boosting local tax revenue, by making a systematic survey of all the land lots in each village.” During the survey, each resident in the five districts had the option to buy a certificate at a cost of US$2 each. In seven months, more than 23,000 land certificates were issued, reflecting the interest in this simple and relatively inexpensive process.

Protecting investments

Bako Rabenandrasana is one of the village farmers who obtained a certificate through this pilot project. “Initially, I had some reservations,” she admits. “Although the [initial] cost is lower, once the certificate is issued, land taxes have to be paid. However, the local authorities explained that the taxes would not be too high. I ended up paying less than 1,000 ariary [US$0.43] a year for each lot, and the tax money will be used to rehabilitate our school.”

“We hope that the new government that took office recently will embrace this innovative approach, which has a successful track record in the pilot districts,” says Coralie Gevers, World Bank Country Manager in Madagascar. “The reform undertaken by the government should be expanded to ensure that the land rights of Malagasy farmers are protected by the State. Clear and transparent management of land rights is a prerequisite for political stability and economic recovery,” she adds.

A recent World Bank report titled “Securing Africa’s Land for Shared Prosperity” argued that land reform policies can boost agricultural productivity and transform the development prospects of African countries. In Madagascar’s case, the formalization of land rights will reduce disputes and encourage farmers to cultivate land and grow more food, thanks to the added security provided by the reforms.

Rabenandrasana’s certification has enabled her to obtain a loan from a microfinance institution, using the certificate as collateral. With the money, she plans to buy a few zebus and plant new rice fields.

 

Anche per i piccoli disabili una opportunità per ricevere istruzione adeguata

Antananarivo (Agenzia Fides) –

In Madagascar sono circa 200 mila i bambini che vengono esclusi dall’istruzione scolastica perché portatori di disabilità. Nel 2008 il Governo aveva emesso un decreto per l’introduzione di un programma che prevedesse l’Inclusione dei Bambini con Disabilità. Sfortunatamente venne bloccato l’anno successivo: in seguito al colpo di stato infatti il budget per l’istruzione venne ridotto notevolmente, limitandolo ai finanziamenti dei benefattori e passando da 82 milioni di dollari nel 2008 a 14,9 milioni nel 2012. L’impossibilità del governo di soddisfare gli stipendi degli insegnanti ha imposto il pagamento delle tasse scolastiche, e le famiglie povere si sono impoverite ancora di più. Secondo il Southern Africa Regional Food Security Update di febbraio 2012, quattro quinti della popolazione del Madagascar è costretta a vivere con meno di 1 dollaro al giorno, e le famiglie povere spendono il 74% del proprio reddito per il cibo. Di conseguenza le iscrizioni scolastiche sono diminuite. Nel 2010 erano il 73,4%, rispetto all’83,3% del 2005. Nelle regioni malgasce meridionali di Atsimo Atsinanana, Melaky, Atsimo Andrefana, Androy e Anosy, il tasso di iscrizioni alla scuola elementare è inferiore al 55%. Un quarto dei piccoli malgasci, circa 1 milione, non vanno a scuola. E’ aumentato anche il numero di quelli che abbandonano gli studi, su 100 che iniziano la scuola elementare, 25 non arrivano al secondo grado, e solo 33 frequentano la scuola secondaria. Peggiore la situazione per i piccoli disabili, con un tasso di iscrizione dell’11%. I genitori di questi piccoli preferiscono non mandarli a scuola per evitargli di essere emarginati e perché sono convinti che inviare un bambino con disabilità a scuola sia una perdita di tempo e di denaro. Finalmente adesso, a tre anni di distanza, è in fase di attuazione un programma di integrazione scolastica che prevede un laboratorio per i bambini con disabilità visiva, fisica e intellettuale. Inoltre circa 400 insegnanti hanno ricevuto una formazione sull’insegnamento a questi piccoli. (AP) (2/10/2012 Agenzia Fides)

Returning Arab donors target Madagascar’s infrastructure

28 April 2014

Africa Review

Arab donors are pushing to re-establish ties with Madagascar quickly even as most other development partners await the green light from multilaterals such as the IMF.

A top Madagascar official said infrastructure development was one of the areas the Arabs are keen on as the country looks to be fully readmitted into the international community.

The Indian ocean island had been isolated following a military coup in 2009 but last year held elections to bring to a close an interim administration.

The IMF has recognised the new government but is said to be preparing a formal programme for aid-dependent Madagascar.

“One delegation from the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) has been in Antananarivo since Monday. The delegates held talks at the Finances and Budget ministry today,” Col Botomanovatsara, the Malagasy Public Works and Meteorology minister, told the Africa Review on Tuesday.

Talks touched on the road building project around the city of Antananarivo to ease chronic congestion.
The capital has a population of 2.5 million–some 10 per cent of the country’s total but basic infrastructure remains creaky.

A daily average of an additional one million people from the suburbs and other regions also make their way into the capital to conduct business.

Expand city
“The ministry has deeply thought abo ut the solutions. We were convinced that the building of new roads outside the town is a realistic way to solve the problem,” the minister said. Authorities are further looking to expand the city.

The planned infrastructure constitutes a giant buckle 100 km length around the capital that also passes through the suburbs. The new roads are expected to connect the five national roads already serving the capital and with the country’s main airport of Ivato.

“The total cost of the project is yet to be determined. It depends on the outcome of the study being conducted by the Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (BADEA),” he said. The construction of one kilometre of new road averages Ar700-800 million ($289,772-$331,168) in Madagascar, excluding other components such as bridges.

New projects
A delegation from BADEA is on assessment in the country. “We had talks with the government. We are disposed to provide technical assistance as a donation for the country. We are now diagnosing the (traffic) issue in order to propose the adequate solutions,” Mr Khalib Ben Salak, a project analyst from the bank, told journalists.

The master plan of the new roads project at the Antananarivo’s surroundings will be submitted to the bank’s board of directors for approval by June.

“Once the initiative was approved, the Malagasy government plans to launch the invitations to tender by the end of the year,” Col Botomanovatsara told the Africa Review.

The Saudis are also involved in the project, together with the African Development Bank (AfDB).

The bank has in recent years set aside $8 million to finance five different projects across Madagascar, with new projects lined up following successful completion.

Original article by RIVONALA RAZAFISON